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FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ABOUT TDRP
TDRP means: Transitional Demobilization and Reintegration Program. TDRP follows in the footsteps of the larger regional DDR effort in the Great Lakes region, the Multi-country Demobilization and Reintegration Program (MDRP), which operated in the Great Lakes Region from 2002 to 2009. The transitional nature of the TDRP means that it aims to support countries that transition from demobilization and reintegration efforts into longer term development programs.
The TDRP's overarching goal is to contribute to peace and security in Africa by supporting demobilization and reintegration activities of ex-combatants.
In particular, the program will:
- Provide technical support for the implementation of existing demobilization and reintegration (D&R) programs;
- Expand D&R coverage by providing emergency financing for new D&R operations or ongoing programs with funding gaps; and
- Facilitate dialogue, information exchange and learning on D&R to address the regional aspects of conflict, improve the quality of D&R efforts, strengthen coordination on policy and programming, and generate lessons for future programs.
The original seven countries that participated in the MDRP – Angola, Burundi, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo, Republic of Congo, Rwanda and Uganda – are eligible for TDRP support. Grant financing to governments, however, will only be available to countries that meet the eligibility criteria of all contributing donors to the TDRP trust fund. Other countries outside the Great Lakes region are eligible for technical assistance on DDR.
The TDRP is funded through a multi-donor trust fund managed by the World Bank and which covers grants to national programs, sub-projects, regional activities and the management of the TDRP. The TDRP Trust Fund amounts to USD 30.8 million.
Seven donors fund the TDRP: the African Development Bank (AfDB), Belgium, Finland, France, Italy, Norway and Sweden. Together they contribute to a multi-donor trust fund managed by the World Bank. The trust fund amounts to US$ 33.7 million as of March 2013.
The World Bank acts as the administrator of the TDRP trust fund and houses the TDRP Technical Team. The role of the World Bank is formalized through legal agreements (called administrative agreements) with the donors to the trust fund. It includes carrying out the fiduciary responsibility of the funds. The management of TDRP projects is therefore subject to World Bank procedures and regulations.
In the TDRP, the relationship with UN agencies is critical to ensure coordination and implementation of activities and sharing of information. The TDRP-UN relationship is based on technical and advisory exchanges and joint action. The TDRP has built close working relationships with the UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations (UNDPKO), organizing joint events and missions on areas of mutual interest.
Donors contributing to the TDRP multi-donor trust fund form the Trust Fund Committee, which is responsible for reviewing the utilization of trust fund resources, advising on the eligibility of projects for TDRP support, and reviewing work plans and budgets of the TDRP technical team.
The program is managed by the TDRP technical team based at the World Bank headquarters in Washington with representatives based in Nairobi (Kenya), Kinshasa (DRC), Kigali (Rwanda) and Bangui (CAR).
The TDRP is planned for a period of 4 years, from 2009 to 2013. TDRP received an extension until 2015 from the original closing date 2013 to complete its activities. The transitional nature of the program is meant to create linkages between ongoing DDR activities and longer term stabilization and development programs. DDR is not meant to play a role in the long term in any context, but rather to create the necessary conditions in a country to resume on the path to peace and recovery.
No. Each program is tailored to the individual country context and socioeconomic profiles of the ex-combatants. However, their designs follow similar principles in terms of program ownership, individual benefits to ex-combatants combined with complementary activities for receiving communities, and support to special groups.
The TDRP technical team carries out consultations with World Bank task managers who oversee ongoing DDR programs, UN agencies, World Bank country management teams and local partners in the Great Lakes region to identify where TDRP support is required. The technical team presents the proposed activities in its annual work program to the Trust Fund Committee who endorses it. The TDRP technical team may provide grants to implementing partners (such as NGOs), in which case it will simply supervise the implementation of the project. For analytical activities, it may enter into strategic alliances (for example with research institutions) and hire consultants to carry out research and provide technical assistance.
No, the World Bank is not an implementing agency. The TDRP and the World Bank mainly provide financing and technical assistance to demobilization and reintegration programs. The overall responsibility for the implementation of these programs lies with the national governments, which in turn can subcontract implementing partners to carry out individual activities under the program.
No. The mandate of the World Bank (which administers the TDRP trust fund) does not allow the organization to financially support activities that benefit armed personnel. This exclusion covers both the World Bank's own funds as well as trust funds administered by the World Bank. Hence, TDRP funds can only be used after combatants have been disarmed, and cannot assist in the integration of ex-combatants into the regular armed forces or activities aimed at these forces such as their professionalization or equipment.
The TDRP regional activities represent about half of the total budget allocated to programs. Regional activities may cover: facilitating the return of combatants on foreign soil to their home countries, assisting disabled ex-combatants to demobilize and reintegrate, addressing youth militia, providing psychosocial assistance to ex-combatants and their families, and addressing transitional justice in DDR programming.
Building on the experience of the MDRP, the TDRP supports various types of activities to address regional aspects of conflict, maintain engagement with other organizations active in D&R operations in the GLR, improve inter-organizational coordination and sharing of experiences, support capacity building and technical assistance to governments and implementing agencies, and further the analytical agenda and policy work on D&R themes. The TDRP supports strategic alliances with specialized agencies with a view to leveraging its resources, taking advantage of comparative advantages of other agencies, and enriching the discussion on D&R in the region with diverse viewpoints, experiences and backgrounds.
The MDRP was financed by a multi-donor trust fund, which had an end date of June 30, 2009. Therefore the MDRP had to close on that date. Moreover, the overall situation in the Great Lakes region has changed dramatically since the early 2000s, with only localized pockets of conflict remaining. Overall, the region is much more stable now than a few years ago. Therefore, partners felt that a large regional partnership to address DDR was no longer necessary. Instead, remaining DDR needs are addressed country by country. Thus the TDRP serves to support these national efforts, as well as maintain a coordination role among the various actors in the field.
As defined in the UN's International Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration Standard (IDDRS), Demobilization is the formal and controlled discharge of active combatants from armed forces or other armed groups. The first stage of demobilization may extend from the processing of individual combatants in temporary centres to the massing of troops in camps designated for this purpose (cantonment sites, encampments, assembly areas or barracks). The second stage of demobilization encompasses the support package provided to the demobilized, which is called reinsertion.
Source: Note by the Secretary-General on administrative and budgetary aspects of the financing of UN peacekeeping operations, 24 May 2005 (A/C.5/59/31)
As defined in the UN's International Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration Standard (IDDRS), reintegration is the process by which ex-combatants acquire civilian status and gain sustainable employment and income. Reintegration is essentially a social and economic process with an open time frame, primarily taking place in communities at the local level. It is part of the general development of a country and a national responsibility and often necessitates long-term external assistance.
Source: Note by the Secretary-General on administrative and budgetary aspects of financing of the UN peacekeeping operations, 24 May 2005 (A/C.5/59/31)